“He argued that the human body is like a machine, and that political organization (“commonwealth”) is like an artificial human being. Beginning from this mechanistic understanding of human beings and the passions, Hobbes postulated what life would be like without government, a condition which he called the “state of nature” and which he argued inevitably leads to conflict and lives that are “solitary, poor, nasty, brutish, and short”. In order to escape this state of war and insecurity, men in the state of nature accede to a “social contract” and establish a civil society. Thus, all individuals in that society cede their natural rights for the sake of protection, and any abuses of power by this authority must be accepted as the price of peace (although in severe cases of abuse, rebellion is to be expected). In particular, he rejected the doctrine of separation of powers, arguing that the sovereign must control civil, military, judicial and ecclesiastical powers, which some have seen as a justification for authoritarianism and even Totalitarianism.”
(See Citation: PhilosophyBasics.com)
Most assuredly, while under the patronage of the restored royal monarchy and under the protection and with the patronage of King Charles Stewart(Stuart) II increased his influence and teachings especially regarding the notion a “social contract” between the political sovereign and the “common people”. Nonetheless, Thomas Hobbes was not the only political philosopher that the American founding fathers drew inspiration born of the Age of Reason. Jeremy Bentham also added substance and thought to the great age of political reason.
“Most of Bentham’s writing was never published in his own lifetime, and several of his works appeared first in French translations by Étienne Dumont (some only becoming available in English in the 1820s as a result of back-translation from the French). His most important work was “The Principles of Morals and Legislation” of 1780, in which his formulation of Utilitarianism was first expounded.
Bentham proposed an underlying moral principle on which his legal and social reforms should be based, which he called Utilitarianism. This philosophy (essentially a modification of Hedonism) evaluates actions based upon their consequences (a type of Consequentialism), and holds that the right act or policy is that which would cause “the greatest happiness of the greatest number”, a phrase which he attributed to Joseph Priestley (1733 – 1804). He also suggested a “felicific calculus” for estimating the moral status (or “happiness factor”) of any action, using a classification of 12 pains and 14 pleasures. His initial theory (often referred to as the principle of utility or the greatest happiness principle) was further developed by his students, particularly by John Stuart Mill, to incorporate more of a principle of fairness and justice, the lack of which was criticized in Bentham’s original formulation.
His opinions on monetary economics (as opposed to those of his contemporaries Adam Smith and David Ricardo) focused on monetary expansion as a means of helping to create full employment. He can be considered as both a classical, and a market, Liberal, and tried to convince Smith that his “Wealth of Nations” called for too much regulation.
Bentham’s political position included arguments in favour of individual and economic freedom, the separation of church and state, freedom of expression, equal rights for women, the abolition of slavery and of physical punishment (including that of children), the recognition of animal rights, the right to divorce, the promotion of free trade and usury and the decriminalization of homosexuality.”
Note that many modern conservative economists have embraced the postulate that Gross Domestic Product (GDP) can be expanded and near full employment reached by reducing government regulation and control. (In Betham’s time a radical concept and embraced by many conservatives in the modern era.) In fact, Betham appeared to argue that an increased economic drive would even require less regulation and taxation than even Adam Smith advocated in the Wealth of Nations.
“Adam Smith (1723 – 1790) was a Scottish philosopher and political economist of the Age of Enlightenment and a key figures in the Scottish Enlightenment.
He is widely cited as the father of modern economics, and sometimes as the father of modern Capitalism, and his magnum opus, “The Wealth of Nations”, is considered the first modern work of classical economics. His metaphor of the invisible hand of the free market has been of untold influence in the development of laissez faire economics and modern Capitalism and Individualism, but Smith’s work has been almost as influential in other areas of Political Philosophy, including Utilitarianism, Liberalism, Libertarianism, Socialism and Marxism.”
Although, these economic and political philosophers and educators argued in favor of less regulation and less taxation, it cannot be fairly or reasonably maintained that these esteemed social scientists embraced Open Borders or unrestrained and unfair trade obligations. In fact, the most liberal founding father, Thomas Jefferson, fully embraced the precept of the nation-state and did not hesitate to authorize the Louisiana purchase, which greatly increased the size of the United States.
“Thomas Jefferson, (born April 2 [April 13, New Style], 1743, Shadwell, Virginia [U.S.]—died July 4, 1826, Monticello, Virginia, U.S.), draftsman of the Declaration of Independence of the United States and the nation’s first secretary of state (1789–94), second vice president (1797–1801), and, as the third president (1801–09), the statesman responsible for the Louisiana Purchase. An early advocate of total separation of church and state, he also was the founder and architect of the University of Virginia and the most eloquent American proponent of individual freedom as the core meaning of the American Revolution. (For a discussion of the history and nature of the presidency, see presidency of the United States of America.)”
Therefore, even Thomas Jefferson was an advocate and promulgator of American Manifest Destiny, national sovereignty, the American Constitutional charter and national security. After All, not only did Jefferson arrange for the Louisiana purchase but also prosecuted the Muslim Barbary Pirates by waging warfare against the Islamic powers of the Barbary Coast.
“The Barbary pirates, sometimes called Barbary corsairs or Ottoman corsairs, were pirates and privateers who operated from North Africa, based primarily in the ports of Salé, Rabat, Algiers, Tunis, and Tripoli.
(see Citation: wikipedia.org/wiki/Barbary_pirates)
he Barbary pirates, sometimes called Barbary corsairs or Ottoman corsairs, were pirates and privateers who operated from North Africa, based primarily in the ports of Salé, Rabat, Algiers, Tunis, and Tripoli. This area was known in Europe as the Barbary Coast, a term derived from the name of its Berber inhabitants. Their predation extended throughout the Mediterranean, south along West Africa‘s Atlantic seaboard and even South America, and into the North Atlantic as far north as Iceland, but they primarily operated in the western Mediterranean. In addition to seizing ships, they engaged in Razzias, raids on European coastal towns and villages, mainly in Italy, France, Spain, and Portugal, but also in the British Isles, the Netherlands and as far away as Iceland. The main purpose of their attacks was to capture Christian slaves for the Ottoman slave trade as well as the general Muslim slavery market in North Africa and the Middle East. “
“Thomas Jefferson won in part against incumbent second President John Adams, by part by noting that the United States was “subjected to the spoliations of foreign cruisers” and was humiliated by paying “an enormous tribute to the petty tyrant of Algiers”.”
(see citation: wikipedia.org/wiki/Barbary_Wars)
Thus, it was under American President Thomas Jefferson’s leadership that the Islamic Barbary States were forced to stop their raids for “spoils” and “slaves” upon Christian European and American countries. Hence, despite extreme liberal and libertarian argument to the contrary, Jefferson was a devout American nationalist committed to American expansion pursuant to the providence of Manifest Destiny and fiercely faithful to the maintenance of American sovereignty. Therefore, these well-documented and well-known historical facts manifest truth in a much more simple and elegant manner than all the sophistry of extreme liberalism and ultra liberatarism. Jefferson’s nationalism and endorsement of American sovereign integrity are inviolate while liberal and libertarian Open Border and unfair Trade sophistry are as the wisk of a fading wind doomed in the migrant crisis of the European Union’s Open border policies.
California Senator Kevin De Leon (D-LA) and others whom openly endorse lawless, trickery, dishonesty, revolution, sedition and Che Guevara like subversion must be brought to an accounting before a Federal Tribunal for Sedition and Conspiracy against the ordained laws of the United States.
California Senator Kevin De Leon (D-LA) openly advocates nullification of Federal law and through his nullification arguments regarding Federal immigration laws may create an implied or de facto endorsement for a break a way California Republic. This unholy political subterfuge must be arrested in nature in order to preserve the integrity of American sovereignty.
The forces of foreign influenced Sedition, Subversion, and Succession have been allowed to much destructive and undermining unholy justification especially in California casting a dark disparage upon the United States of America. These subversives ever increasing and more open regarding their utter contempt for the American Constitution and more diabolically committed to the disintegration and destruction of the Union. Consider this self-evident maxim of truth-had these saboteurs lived during Jefferson’s wars against the slave-taking Islamic States of the Barbary coast, no doubt, Jefferson would have been incessantly condemned by these seditionists for not having taken the side of the Barbary Coast Caliphates.
These crooked politicians, demented college professors, spoiled and pampered hollywood elites and scared government bureaucrats cannot fathom the industry, free-will and determination of independent-minded American citizens nor the hearts that “beat true to the red, white and blue”. Instead, the communist liberals and the Globalists libertarians masquerading as conservatives hide behind a shallow and largely disingenuous media.
In the end, as conservative commentator Ezra Taft Benson said as paraphrased, “ the Nation will not be saved in Washington but by the people”.
This has been manifested by the great swell of traditional Americans residing in the heartland who came out to vote for Donald Trump in an effort to change the disastrous direction the liberal sheep and globalists via Open borders and unfair trade practices were steering the country. These globalists are like deranged pseudo cowhands leading the cattle toward a cliff to fall to their own destruction. Whereas, the real cowboys, like Reagan and now Trump lead Americans away from the cliff and to safe ground.
Source: Jeffrey E. Elliott.com